The international community has proposed a serial formulas for aid in humanitarian crises that are tearing the earth ... But the program "oil against food", imposed on Iraq, still ahead of these formulas, without any competition, for raising, as international programme, controversies and disputes of the hottest, not to mention the tragedy produced by the imposition of sanctions on the Iraqi people. The inception of the programme is fraught with jerky events, developments and milestones "so attractive".
The program, father of 14 resolutions of the International Security Council, has sparked a major controversy at regional, international and intellectual content to have clauses on food and medicines for the Iraqi people. This people has been the subject of hard supervising by the United Nations who had approved under the programme until 31st March 2000, 7118 contracts for a value of 11,486 billion dollars, out of a total of 12,675 contracts. The scene played Friday at the Security Council proves that "oil against food" tops the list of humanitarian aid formulas proposed ... the Council approved the 14th resolution on the resumption of the programme. Thus, the process of the formula, adopted on April 14st, 1995, will be continued.
The case "oil against food" dates back to August 2nd 1990, day of the imposition of sanctions on Iraq. At this day, the Security Council enacts the resolution 661, under Article 41 of the UN Charter : the imposition of economic sanctions wide scale to Iraq. The 661 also stipulates the formation of a committee of sanctions among Security Council members, to monitor compliance with the embargo. The Council entrusted the Committee, by resolution 715, the control of all transactions entered into by Iraq.
Let's Follow the footsteps of "oil against Food", this "fair!" program that supposed to relieve a people deprived by the embargo :
* September 25th, 1990: Security Council enacts the resolution 670 to impose a blockade on all means of transport from or to Iraq.
* April 1991: The war against Iraq is completed, the kuwait released and his government restores. Compliance with the provision of the Charter of the United Nations should then lead to stop the economic sanctions.
* April 3rd, 1991: The Security Council adopts Resolution 687: Iraq must pay endemnites of war, forming "UNSCOM" to disarm Iraq and settle the issue of Kuwaiti prisoners of war missing.
* April 14th, 1995: The Security Council approved, in its resolution 986, the program "oil against food", program that Iraq refuses.
* May 1996: Memorandum of Iraq-UN agreement on modalities for implementing the 986 resolution. According to the memorandum, Iraq sell oil for 2 billion dollars every 6 months. The recipe will be paid into an account controlled by the United Nations and will be used to pay for Iraq food, medicines and materials and for rebuilding infrastructure. In the programme, 53% of Iraqi oil income are dedicated to humanitarian aid (food, medicines, equipments and basic necessities for the population), 30% to compensate victims of the war with Kuwait, 13% for the 3 Kurdish regions in northern Iraq, 0.8% for the costs of UNSCOM and 2.2% for the administrative service and banking program. The memorandum also stipulates the implementation of the program by Baghdad, in 15 governorates of southern and central Iraq while the three northern governorates will be entrusted to the United Nations.
* February 20th, 1998: Acquisition of resolution 1153 the Security Council to raise the ceiling of export Iraqi crude to $ 5.2 billion every six months, including 300 million for importing equipment to improve export capacity Iraqi oil. But the "turtle 661" hampers the machine-sale purchase of Iraq. Each application and each piece makes weeks before being approved, not to mention the Basra refinery bombed in December 1998, which added to the suffering of the Iraqi oil sector.
* October 4th, 1999: The Security Council approuve the 1266 resolution in which Iraq is allowed to export 3 billion dollars oil till the end of the 6th phase of "oil against food" in November 1999.
* November 19th, 1999: Resolution 1275 extended the program for 15 days. The Security Council hopes to get an agreement by the end of this period about suspending sanctions imposed on Iraq. In response, Baghdad does a contre-attack and stopped the export of crude oil.
* December 10th, 1999: The Security Council renewed, by resolution 1281, "Oil against food" for six months. The resolution has a ceiling of 5.26 billion dollars, the recipe for Iraqi oil than 6 months. Iraq resumes oil exports after 3 weeks of interruption.
* 17th December 1999: The Security Council promulgates the resolution 1284 despite the objection of 3 of its permanent members (Russia, China and France). The 1284 provides for the establishment of a new system of inspection of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq against the suspension of sanctions for renewable 120 days. By that resolution, the UN Commission for monitoring, verification and inspection (UNMOVIC) replace UNSCOM. Russia has abstained because it considered the resolution "no future" in pursuing the US-British bombing. China warned Washington and London against the arbitrary use the force. For France, the disarmament of Iraq must result in a lifting and not a suspension of sanctions. Baghdad rejected the resolution 1284.
* January 26th, 2000: The Security Council approves the choice of Mr. Hans Blix to head UNMOVIC, replacing Mr. Rolf Ekeus, head of UNSCOM, appointed by UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan and rejected by Baghdad and Moscow because of doubts raised during its presidency of UNSCOM from 1991 to 1997.
* March 31th, 2000: The Security Council approves resolution 1293 which authorises Iraq to use 600 million (instead of 300 million) of its oil revenue to rehabilitate its oil infrastructure.
* June 8th, 2000: The Security Council adopts resolution 1302 to extend, for 180 days, the "oil against food" starting from June 9. In the resolution, the Security Council calls upon the Secretary General of the United Nations to appoint independent experts to prepare a detailed report on the humanitarian situation in Iraq.
* June 1st, 2001: Resolution 1352 renewed the program for one month.
* July 3rd, 2001: Resolution 1360 renews Oil against food for 150 days without making any modification of sanctions against Iraq. For the opposition of Russia, Britain finally surrenders to vote the so-called "resolution on smart sanctions".
* May 14th, 2002: The Security Council adopts resolution 1409 which amends the system of sanctions and extends for six months "Oil against food." The resolution stipulates that UNMOVIC and the IAEA control "closely" products that could serve military purposes.
* December 4th, 2002: The Security Council approves resolution 1447 renewing for six months the program "oil against food."
* December 30th, 2002: Resolution 1454 which extends the list of "banned" import by Iraq, in a procedure hardening the sanctions.
* March 28th, 2003: Resolution 1472 was passed unanimously on the resumption of the programme "oil against food", arrested on the eve of the Anglo-American war against Iraq. Russia has stressed that this resolution was a "provisional" for 45 days. According to the records of the program "oil against food" a serial of contracts approved, cancelled and carried by the Sanctions Committee.
According to numbers from the office of the UN charge of the Iraq program, 12,675 contracts were received until March 31st, 2000 and concluded by Iraq with companies and other countries. These contracts are divided as follows:
Contracts recieved Contracts approved contracts on hold
phases value in millions valaue in millions
from 1 to 7 number USD number USD number
products 1877 5652 1370 1 2
products 664 806 414 187 51
Medication 1971 1165 1611 165 102
parts 2534 846 1656 316 517
Electricity 967 858 643 423 163
water 443 501 291 138 58
Agriculture 898 690 633 132 59
Education 401 208 192 67 90
Regions 2783 698 268 1 13
Total 12675 11486 7118 1640 1114